focus questions

1. What is Climate Change and how does it impact the world?

2. What are the reasons for Climate Change?

3. How do we know that Climate change is happening?

4. Who gets impacted by climate change?  What is the impact on humans?

5. What can we do to protect ourselves against Climate Change?

6. How climate change impacts Long Island?

7. Climate Change is expected to bring stronger storms more frequently, such as Super Storm Sandy. What can shoreline communities do to protect against future storms, while keeping intact their communities and the environment?

8. Salt marshes provide a critical line of defense for coastal communities against severe storms and flooding. Unfortunately, Salt Marshes around Long Island are shrinking. For instance, between 1974 and 2001, there was an 18-36% loss in tidal wetlands in the Great South Bay.

 What factors are contributing to this loss of marshlands around Long Island?

9. How does excessive nitrogen loading impact salt marshes and what is the primary source of this nitrogen?

10. How can efforts to improve coastal storm resiliency incorporation actions to protect and restore Long Island’s salt marshes?


LINKS

1. What is Climate Change and how does it impact the world?

NASA:
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/nasa-knows/what-is-climate-change-k4.html
http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
http://climate.nasa.gov/effects/

Take Part:
http://www.takepart.com/flashcards/what-is-climate-change

The New York Times:
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/11/28/science/what-is-climate-change.html?_r=0

New Zealand Ministry for the Environment:
http://www.mfe.govt.nz/climate-change/overview-climate-change/about-climate-change

Environmental Defense Fund:
https://www.edf.org/climate/climate-change-impacts

 

2. What are the reasons for Climate Change?

United States Environmental Protection Agency:
https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/science/causes.html

NASA:
http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/

Climate Change Government of Canada:
http://climatechange.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=65CD73F4-1

EDU Green:
http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/climate/change.htm

National Geographic:
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-causes/

 

3. How do we know that Climate change is happening?

Union of Concerned Scientists:
http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/human-contribution-to-gw-faq.html#.V-rfmCgrK00

NASA:
http://www.ces.fau.edu/nasa/module-4/causes-2.php

Skeptical Science:
http://www.skepticalscience.com/empirical-evidence-for-global-warming.htm
http://www.skepticalscience.com/evidence-for-global-warming.htm

Environmental Defense Fund:
https://www.edf.org/climate/human-activity-is-causing-global-warming

 

4. Who gets impacted by climate change?  What is the impact on humans?

The Nature Conservancy:
http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/urgentissues/global-warming-climate-change/threats-solutions/index.htm

Environmental Defense Fund:
https://www.edf.org/climate/climate-change-impacts

United States Environmental Protection Agency:
https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/impacts/effects/
https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts/health.html

World Wildlife Fund:
http://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/effects-of-climate-change

Global Change.gov:
https://health2016.globalchange.gov/

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences:
http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/programs/geh/climatechange/

 

5. What can we do to protect ourselves against Climate Change?

The New York Times:
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/11/28/science/what-is-climate-change.html?_r=0

NASA:
http://climate.nasa.gov/effects/
http://climate.nasa.gov/solutions/resources/

Make an Impact:
http://makeanimpact.c2es.org/climate-change

The Nature Conservancy:
http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/urgentissues/global-warming-climate-change/how-we-work/

National Resource Defense Council:
https://www.nrdc.org/stories/how-you-can-stop-global-warming

 

6. How does climate change impact Long Island?

The Weather Channel:
https://weather.com/news/news/long-island-climate-change-20130225

Newsday:
http://www.newsday.com/long-island/graphics-how-climate-change-will-affect-long-island-1.4701348
http://www.newsday.com/opinion/editorial/long-island-is-facing-climate-change-in-montauk-on-shores-1.11330288

New York Environment Report:
http://www.nyenvironmentreport.com/overwhelmed-by-climate-change-long-island-is-taking/

Climate Change in Long Island Sound:
http://lissclimatechange.net/

 

7. Climate Change is expected to bring stronger storms more frequently, such as Super Storm Sandy. What can shoreline communities do to protect against future storms, while keeping intact their communities and the environment?

  • Buy out options
  • “Soft solutions”: creating new dunes/wetlands/or other natural buffer areas
  • “Hard solutions”: building sea walls/tidal gates

Storm Recovery New York:
http://stormrecovery.ny.gov/ny-rising-buyout-and-acquisition-programs 

Natural Resources Defense Council:
http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/egoldstein/post-sandy_floodplain_buyout_p.html 

Department of Environmental Conservation:
http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/4937.html 

World Wide Fund for Nature:
http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/intro/value/ 

Newsday:
http://www.newsday.com/news/new-york/58-2m-dune-plan-for-breezy-point-gets-green-light-1.8983516 
http://www.newsday.com/opinion/oped/movable-barriers-can-protect-long-island-s-south-shore-john-d-cameron-jr-and-david-berg-1.6069653 

U.S. National Park Service:
http://www.nps.gov/fiis/naturescience/upload/LongIslandsDynamicSouthShore_150dpi_11-08-07.pdf 

 

8. Salt marshes provide a critical line of defense for coastal communities against severe storms and flooding. Unfortunately, Salt Marshes around Long Island are shrinking. For instance, between 1974 and 2001, there was an 18-36% loss in tidal wetlands in the Great South Bay.

What factors are contributing to this loss of marshlands around Long Island?

How does excessive nitrogen loading impact salt marshes and what is the primary source of this nitrogen?

How can efforts to improve coastal storm resiliency incorporation actions to protect and restore Long Island’s salt marshes?  

Citizens Campaign for the Environment:
http://www.citizenscampaign.org/news/story.asp?id=737 
http://www.citizenscampaign.org/PDFs/2013%204%205%20WQ%20Case%20Statement%20watermark%20FINAL.pdf 

Department of Environmental Conservation:
http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/water_pdf/impairmarshland.pdf 

Nature Conservancy:
http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/unitedstates/newyork/howwework/new-york-protecting-wetlands.xml 

The Huffington Post:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/marshall-brown/can-long-island-be-saved-_1_b_5410126.html 

Peconic Bay Keeper:
http://www.peconicbaykeeper.org/siteFiles/News/8C80D9422A9BA2438D3F43F21E147772.pdf 

Newsday:
http://www.newsday.com/news/health/nitrogen-growing-threat-to-li-waters-1.6132749 
http://www.newsday.com/long-island/excessive-nitrogen-harming-li-storm-buffering-salt-marshes-says-dec-1.7964157 

The Suffolk Times:
http://suffolktimes.timesreview.com/2014/06/49374/researchers-farm-fertilizer-top-nitrogen-pollution-cause-on-north-fork/ 

Long Island Clean Water Partnership:
http://longislandcleanwaterpartnership.org/content.aspx?page=problem 

 

9. Aside from Carbon, what are other greenhouse gases and the sources of these greenhouse gases?

Greenpeace International:
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/science/other_gases/ 

U.S. Energy Information Administration:
http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=1390 

United States Environmental Protection Agency:
http://www.epa.gov/climatestudents/basics/today/greenhouse-gases.html 
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases.html 

U.S. Department of Transportation:
http://climate.dot.gov/about/overview/greenhouse-gases.html 

 

10. How can Smart Growth and regional planning mitigate climate change’s impact on communities?  

United States Environmental Protection Agency:
http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/climatechange.htm 

Smart Growth America:
http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/complete-streets/complete-streets-fundamentals/factsheets/climate-change 

American Planning Association:
https://www.planning.org/policy/guides/pdf/climatechange.pdf